Introduction to Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus (abbreviated as “diabetes”) is a serious disease that occurs when your body has difficulty adjusting the soluble sugar (glucose) in your body and is not associated with a designated disease.
Understanding diabetes requires first understanding the role of glucose in the body, and what happens when glucose control fails and blood sugar levels become dangerously low or high.
The tissues and cells that make up the human body are organisms, and require food to survive. Food cells consume a type of sugar called glucose. Right where they stand, the body’s cells depend entirely on the blood stream they bathe in to carry the glucose. Without access to enough glucose, the body’s cells have nothing to enter on their own and are about to die.
People eat food, not glucose. Human foods are converted into glucose as part of the normal digestive process. When converted, glucose enters the bloodstream, increasing the level of soluble glucose in the blood. Blood vessels carry dissolved glucose to various tissues and cells of the body.
Even if there is glucose in the blood, nearby cells cannot access that glucose without the help of the chemical hormone insulin. Insulin acts as the key to opening cells, allowing them to receive and use available glucose. In the presence of insulin, cells absorb glucose from the blood and blood glucose levels drop as the sugar leaves the blood and enters the cells. Insulin is considered a bridge between cells for blood flow and glucose. It should be understood that as insulin levels rise, blood glucose levels decrease (as sugar enters the cells to be used for energy).
The body is designed to control and protect the level of dissolved glucose in the blood in order to maintain a constant supply to meet the needs of cells. The pancreas, one of many organs in your body, produces and stores insulin in the bloodstream to restore glucose levels.
The amount of glucose available in the bloodstream at any given time depends on the amount and type of food people eat. Refined carbohydrates, sweets and sweets are easily broken down into glucose. Similarly, the blood sugar level rises rapidly after eating such foods. In contrast, blood sugar rises slowly and gradually after eating more complex, unrefined carbohydrates (such as oats, apples, and boiled potatoes), which require more digestive steps before digestion glucose.
When faced with rapidly rising blood glucose concentrations, the body must respond quickly by releasing high levels of insulin or put itself at risk for a dangerous condition called hyperglycemia (high blood sugar. blood), described below. The arrival of insulin allows cells to use glucose, and the concentration of glucose decreases. As glucose levels rise and fall rapidly, insulin levels gradually change.
When you eat high levels of simple sugar, your blood vessels quickly fill with glucose. Insulin is released by the pancreas in response to increased sugar. Glucose enters cells rapidly but high insulin levels remain in the bloodstream for some time. This causes high insulin in the blood, which causes a feeling of hunger and hypoglycemia (hypoglycemia), a more serious condition.
As blood glucose concentrations gradually increase, the need for dramatic compensation decreases. Insulin can be released in a highly controlled and safe manner, allowing the body to experience less stress. This slow process will leave you feeling “full” or satisfied for a longer period of time.
For these reasons, controlling the amount and frequency of sweets and refined sugars in your diet is good for overall health. Instead eat raw fruits, whole wheat bread and complex sugars such as pasta and beans. The difference between simple and complex sugars (carbohydrates) is shown by the difference between white (simple) and whole wheat (very complex) breads.
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic disease that occur your blood glucose known as blood sugar.The glucose is your main sources of energy and comes from the food you eat.Insuline hormone produced by the pancreas, helps glucose from food enter your cells and use for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t have enough or insulin or doesn’t use insulin properly.
there is no cure for diabete you can take step to manage your diabete and stay healthy.
Diabetes is a chronic diseases that occur the pancreas can no longer produce insulin.When the body does not produce insulin properly.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, which serves as the key to transporting glucose from the food we eat from the bloodstream to the body’s cells to generate energy. All carbohydrate foods are separated from blood glucose. Insulin helps glucose get into cells.
Insulin deficiency or over use can lead to an effective increase in blood sugar levels (called hyperglycemia). Prolonged high glucose levels are associated with injury and failure of various organs and tissues.
People sometimes refer to diabetes as “sugar contact” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms indicate that a person does not actually have diabetes or has a less severe case, but each case of diabetes is severe.
Diabetes, commonly referred to as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes elevated blood sugar. The hormone insulin converts sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or converted into energy. In diabetes, your body does not produce enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it produces effectively.
Untreated high blood sugar from diabetes can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys and other organs.
There are three main types of diabetes :
This type of diabetes can develop at any age, but most commonly occurs in children and adolescents. When you have type 1 diabetes, your body makes little or no insulin, which means you need daily insulin injections to control your blood sugar levels.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas, where insulin is produced. At present it is not known what caused the fire. About 10 percent of people with diabetes have this type.
Type 2 diabetes is very common in adults and accounts for about 90% of all diabetes. When you have type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t use the insulin it does well. The foundation of treatment for this type of diabetes is a healthy lifestyle, which includes increased physical activity and a healthy diet. However, over time, patients with type 2 diabetes may require oral medication and/or insulin to control their blood sugar levels.
Diabetes occurs when you have a high enough resistance to insulin, and the amount of sugar in your blood increases.
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar travel pregnancy. Insulin-Blocking Hormone Products by Plant Case This Debt Obesity Diabetes.
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a type of diabetes that causes high blood sugar during pregnancy and is associated with complications for both mother and baby. GTM usually disappears after pregnancy, but women are at risk of it and their children at risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar returns to normal, but it does not entitle to a diagnosis of diabetes.
A rare condition called diabetes insipidus is not associated with diabetes, although it has the same name. This is a different condition in which your kidneys remove excess fluid from your body.
The Symptoms of Diabetes
Symptoms of diabetes include:
- Increased thirst
- Feeling weak, feeling tired.
- Blurred vision
- Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet.
- The wound or cut heals slowly.
- Unplanned weight loss.
- frequent urination.
- Often unexplained infection.
- Dry mouth
In women: dry and itchy skin, and frequent yeast infections or urinary tract infections.
In men: decreased sexual desire, decreased erection, decreased muscle strength.
Symptoms of Type1 Diabetes
Extreme hunger,increased thirst,unintentional weight loss,frequent urination,blurry vision,tiredness.
Symptoms of type2 diabetes
- increased the hunger
- increased the thirst
- increased the urination
- the blurry vision
- the tiredness
- the sores that are slow to heal
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes: Symptoms can develop quickly — over weeks or months. Symptoms begin at an early age – childhood, adolescence or young adulthood. Additional symptoms include nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain and a yeast infection or urinary tract infection.
Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes symptoms: You may not have any symptoms or notice them because they develop slowly over many years. Symptoms usually begin to develop as adults, but can increase the risk of diabetes and type 2 diabetes at all ages.
Gestational diabetes: You usually don’t notice symptoms. Your obstetrics will diagnose gestational diabetes weeks of pregnancy.
The Causes of diabetes
Different causes are each type of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes
Doctors do not know why type 1 diabetes occurs. For some reason, the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
For some, genes may play a role. There is also the possibility of a virus initiating an attack on the immune system.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes comes from a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Being overweight or obese increases your risk. Being overweight, especially in your belly, makes your cells more resistant to the effects of insulin on your blood sugar.
This condition runs in families. Family members share genes that make them more likely to get type 2 diabetes and be overweight.
Gestational diabetes is the hormonal changes during pregnancy. The produces hormones that make a pregnant woman’s cells less sensitive to the effects of insulin. It can cause high blood sugar during pregnancy.
Women who are overweight during pregnancy or who are overweight during pregnancy are more likely to develop gestational diabetes.
The risk factors of diabetes
Risk factors for diabetes depend on the type of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes
- Although the exact cause of type 1 diabetes is not known, risk factors that increase the risk are:
- Family history
- Your risk will increase if a parent or sibling has type 1 diabetes.
- Environmental factors.
- Conditions such as exposure to viruses may play a role in type 2 diabetes.
The presence of harmful immune system cells (autoantibodies). Sometimes family members of type 1 diabetics get tested for the presence of diabetic autoantibodies. If you have autoantibodies, you have a higher risk of developing type 1 diabetes. But not all people with these autoantibodies get diabetes.
Geology. Some countries, such as Finland and Sweden, have high rates of type 1 diabetes.
pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes and others do not. It is clear that several factors increase the risk, however:
The more fat tissue you have, the more insulin your cells will resist.
The less active you are, the higher the risk of inactivity. Physical activity helps control weight, uses glucose as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.
family history. Your risk will increase if a parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes.
Ethnicity or race it is not clear why, some – including blacks, Hispanics, American Indians and Asian Americans – are at higher risk.
Your risk increases with age. The more you exercise, the more you lose muscle and gain weight as you age. But type 2 diabetes is on the rise in children, teens, and young adults.
gestational diabetes. If you develop gestational diabetes while you are pregnant, you have an increased risk of developing pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. If you give birth to a baby who weighs 9 pounds (4 kilograms), you are also at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
polycystic ovary syndrome in women, having polycystic ovary syndrome – a common condition characterized by irregular menstruation, excessive hair growth and being overweight – increases the risk of diabetes.
high blood pressureBlood pressure higher than 140/90 mm Hg (mm Hg) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
Abnormal fat and triglyceride levels. If you have high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or “good” cholesterol, you have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.another type of cholesterol in the blood. People with high triglycerides have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. doctor can tell you what your cholesterol and triglyceride levels are.
Pregnant women can get gestational diabetes. Some women at higher risk than others. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include:
Women over age of 25 are at higher risk.
Family history or personal history. If you have type 2 diabetes — or a close family member such as a parent or sibling — your risk may be increased. If you had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy, you are at greater risk if you gave birth to a large baby or if you had an unexplained stillbirth.
Being overweight before pregnancy increases your risk.
Caste or caste For unexplained reasons, gestational diabetes is more common in Black, Hispanic, American Indian or Asian American women.
The Complications of Diabetes
Chronic complications of diabetes develop slowly. The longer you have diabetes — and the less control you have over your blood sugar — the higher your risk of complications. Eventually, complications of diabetes can be paralyzing or even life-threatening possible issues include.
Heart disease dramatically increases the risk of various heart problems, including chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke, and atherosclerosis (atherosclerosis).you have diabetes, you are more likely to have heart disease or stroke.
Nerve damage (neurology). Excess sugar can damage the walls of the small blood vessels (capillaries) that supply nutrients to your nerves, especially your legs. It can cause confusion, numbness, burning or pain, which usually begins at the tips of the fingers or toes and gradually spreads upwards.
If left untreated, you may lose sensation in the affected leg. Damage to the nerves associated with digestion can cause problems such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men, this can lead to an erection.
Kidney damage (nephropathy). The kidneys contain millions of tiny blood vessels (glomeruli) that filter waste from your blood. Diabetes can damage this delicate filtration system. Severe damage can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which may require dialysis or kidney transplant surgery.
Eye damage (retinopathy). Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy), which can lead to blindness. Diabetes increases the risk of other serious vision conditions such as cataracts and glaucoma.
foot injury. Injury to a nerve in the foot or poor blood flow to the foot increases the risk of various foot complications. If left untreated, cuts and blisters can lead to serious infections that often don’t heal properly. For these infections the leg, leg, or leg must be amputated skin condition.
Diabetes can make you prone to skin problems including bacterial and fungal infections.
Deaf -Hearing problems are more common in diabetics.
Alzheimer’s disease increases the risk of dementia in the same way as type 2 diabetes. The harder it is to control your blood sugar, the higher the risk. Despite theories of how these disorders may be linked, nothing has yet been proven.
Mental stress- Symptoms of depression are common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Depression can affect the management of diabetes.
The Complications of gestational diabetes
Most women with gestational diabetes give birth to healthy babies. However, untreated or uncontrolled blood sugar levels can cause problems for you and your baby.
Your baby may have complications as a result of gestational diabetes.
Excess growth– The extra glucose crosses the placenta and stimulates your baby’s pancreas to produce more insulin. This can lead to the development of your baby (macrosomia). Older babies may require a C-section birth.
Low blood sugar– Sometimes mothers with gestational diabetes get low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) soon after birth because their own insulin production is high. Fast food and sometimes an intravenous glucose solution can bring a child’s blood sugar level back to normal.
Later in type 2 diabetes– Mothers with gestational diabetes have a higher risk of late weight gain and type 2 diabetes.
Death– Untreated gestational diabetes can kill the baby before or soon after birth.
Complications can also occur as a result of gestational diabetes:
Preeclampsia-This condition is characterized by high blood pressure, excess protein in the urine, and swelling in the legs and feet. Preeclampsia can cause serious or life-threatening complications for both mother and baby.
Later gestational diabetes. When you have gestational diabetes in one pregnancy, you are more likely to get it again in the next pregnancy. As you get older, you are more likely to get diabetes – a common type of diabetes.
Subsequent gestational diabetes.
When you have gestational diabetes in one pregnancy, you are more likely to get it again in the next pregnancy. As you get older, you are more likely to get diabetes – a common type of diabetes.
The Prevention of Diabetes
Diabetes is can’t prevented. How, on the same healthy list, Choice can help treat diabetes, diabetes and gestational diabetes.
Take healthy diet foods that are low in fat and calories and high in fiber. Focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Strive for variety to avoid boredom.
Get more physical activity. Aim for about 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity most days of the week, or at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity per week.
lose extra pounds. If you are overweight, you will lose at least 7% of your body weight – for example, if you weigh 200 pounds (90.7 kg) and 14 pounds (6.4 kg) – this will reduce your risk of diabetes. Will be done.
Do not try to lose weight while pregnant. Talk to your doctor about how much weight gain during pregnancy is healthy for you.
To keep your weight in a healthy range, focus on making permanent changes to your diet and exercise habits. Motivate yourself by remembering the benefits of losing weight like a healthier heart, more energy and better self-esteem.
- What are the early signs of having diabetes?
Early signs and symptoms
Frequent urination. …
Increased thirst. …
Always feeling hungry. …
Feeling very tired. …
Blurry vision. …
Slow healing of cuts and wounds. …
Tingling, numbness, or pain in the hands or feet. …
Patches of dark skin.
- What is the main cause of diabetes ?
Although not everyone with type 2 diabetes is overweight, obesity and an inactive lifestyle are two of the most common causes of type 2 diabetes. These things are responsible for about 90% to 95% of diabetes cases in the United States.
- Can diabetes be cured ?
No cure for diabetes currently exists, but the disease can go into remission. When diabetes goes into remission, it means that the body does not show any signs of diabetes, although the disease is technically still present.
Source : https://www.niddk.nih.gov/